Turkey has increased its exports significantly, especially in 2021. Learn about the top countries Turkey exports the most and their relations in this article.
Due to its geopolitical position, Turkey is a country that can trade with every region of the world. Turkey, which is suitable for land, sea, and air transportation, has increased the number of countries it exports to recently. Especially with the export of products with high added value, Turkey expanded its exports to every region of the world. This way, from South America and Middle East countries to Europe and the USA, Turkey increased its exportation.
The coronavirus, which has affected the world in recent years, has started to turn from a pandemic to an endemic. Therefore, Turkey has increased its exports significantly, especially in 2021. So, which are the countries to which Turkey exports the most, and what are the trade relations with these countries?
When we look at Turkey's export data, a regular increase in recent years is striking. Turkey's exports reached 225 billion 291 million dollars in 2021 with an increase of 32.8% compared to the previous year. In addition, while the ratio of exports to imports was 77.3% in 2020, it increased to 83% last year.
When we take a glance at the general export rate among countries, Germany takes the first place. Exports to Germany amounted to 19 billion 321 million dollars. Germany was followed by the USA with 14 billion 722 million dollars. The United Kingdom ranked third with 13 billion 704 million dollars. Italy followed the United Kingdom with 11 billion 475 million dollars and Iraq with 11 billion 133 million dollars, respectively. Exports to the first five countries corresponded to 31.2 percent of Turkey's total exports. Turkey has been exporting a significant amount to Israel and Egypt, which are among the Eastern Mediterranean countries recently.
Turkey's strong historical ties with Germany, the fact that millions of Turks live in Germany, and the largest economy in Europe make Germany a privileged country in exports. Since the 1960s, when intensive economic relations began, Turkey's trade with Germany has grown continuously. To put it in numbers, although the exports, which were 16.6 billion dollars in 2019, decreased to 16 billion dollars in 2020 with the pandemic. However, it reached approximately 18 billion dollars in 2021.
Turkey's exports to Germany in 2021 reached a historical peak of 17 billion 705.4 million dollars with an annual increase of 22.9 percent. The trade volume between Germany and Turkey also rose to a record level with an annual 41.1 billion dollars. So, in which sectors did Turkey export the most? The sectors that Turkey has exported the most to Germany in recent years are heavy industry sectors. Turkey exports to Germany mostly in the automotive, textile, iron and metals, chemical products, and electronic products sectors. In particular, Turkey's investments in the automotive and machinery industry, and improved logistics services have increased exports of value-added products.
Turkey's economic relations with the USA have increased especially since the 1950s. Turkey's mechanization in agriculture has started agricultural trade between the two countries. Today, trade with the USA is carried out in agriculture, automotive, steel, jewelry, textiles, and other fields. The country with the highest increase in exports in 2021 compared to the previous year was the USA. Turkey's exports to the USA increased by $4.54 billion in 2021. In 2021, total exports amounted to 14 billion dollars. Especially in recent years, agricultural, ship, and yacht products and automotive exports from Turkey to the USA have been increasing.
According to the data of the Ministry of Commerce, the United Kingdom has been one of the three countries to which Turkey has exported the most for the last three years. Exports, which were 11 billion 279 million dollars in 2019, reached 11 billion 236 million dollars in 2020 and 13 billion 708 million dollars in 2021. Turkey's exports to the United Kingdom constitute 6.1 percent of its total exports.
The sector to which Turkey exports the most to the UK is automotive. In addition, ready-made clothing, electronic products, precious stones, and jewelry sectors are the sectors that export the most. Especially the UK's exit from the European Union and its orientation to the Eurasian market contributed positively to Turkey's exports.
The trade between Italy, which has an important position between European and Mediterranean countries, with Turkey is increasing every year. Exports of 8 billion 83 million dollars in 2020 gained momentum in 2021 and reached 11 billion 480 billion dollars. Italy is the fourth country to which Turkey exports the most in 2021. The sector to which Turkey exports the most to Italy is the automotive sector. Other products from the automotive sector include nuts, iron and steel products, mineral oils, and textiles. Turkey's exports to Italy constitute approximately 5.1% of its overall exports. In this process, the companies operating in Istanbul made the most exports to Italy.
Apart from Europe and the USA, Turkey also takes an active role in regional trade. Especially, there is a serious export rate from Eastern Mediterranean countries to Israel and Egypt. While Turkey exported 4 billion 704 million dollars to Israel in 2020, this figure increased to 6 billion 360 million dollars in 2021. Israel's share in Turkey's total export rate was 2.8%. The most exported sectors from Turkey to Israel are automotive, textile, construction materials, metals, and electronic products.
Egypt is one of the most populated Muslim countries. Relations with Egypt are of great importance due to its strong historical ties with Turkey. Moreover, Egypt is an important transit point in the Mediterranean. Therefore, with the development of bilateral relations with Egypt, there was an increase in exports. While Turkey's exports to Egypt were 3 billion 136 million dollars in 2020, this figure increased to 4 billion 523 million dollars in 2021. The sectors that Turkey exports the most to Egypt are textiles, iron and steel, various metal products, and road vehicles.
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