Turkish coffee is very popular in the world with its unique smell, foam, and presentation in small cups. Discover the history of Turkish coffee in this post.
Turkish coffee is one of the most special coffees in the world with its unique taste. It is very popular in the world with its unique smell, foam, and presentation in small cups. It has even been registered by UNESCO. In 2013, “Turkish Coffee Culture and Tradition” was included in the UNESCO List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. So, what do people know about the history of Turkish coffee and what are the transformations Turkish coffee goes through until it is served?
"Coffee comes from Yemen, the roads are far away." The folk song gives some clues about the geography and history of coffee. The word coffee probably comes from the Ethiopian city of "Kaffa" which is related to coffee production. In the past, people in the Arabian Peninsula consumed coffee by boiling its fruits.
The arrival of Turkish coffee on Ottoman lands coincides with the 16th century. During the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim, Yemen Governor Özdemir Pasha brought coffee beans to Istanbul, and people met coffee. Unlike the method in the Arabian Peninsula, coffee fruits were ground and cooked in coffee pots. Thus began the story of Turkish coffee, which is preferred by all. After the coffee maker was charged to the palace organization, the interest in coffee gradually increased. Since coffee was very important to the sultan, the water served with the coffee also gained importance. The water that the sultan would drink was specially brought from Gümüşsuyu (Taksim).
Although Turkish delight other than water is served alongside coffee today, there was no Turkish delight in the beginning. Turkish coffee, which was usually served with jam, has been served with Turkish delight, especially in the last hundred years.
Then, over time, Turkish coffee culture began to spread to homes. In 1554, the first coffeehouse was opened in Tahtakale, Istanbul. The coffeehouses that were opened turned into places where intellectual discussions were held over time. People were reading books and poems with coffee and playing various games. At this point, coffee ceased to be a beverage and became a social tradition and culture.
The introduction of coffee to European lands was also thanks to the Turks. Coffee, which reached Venice in 1615 by the Venetians who came to Istanbul, spread to Europe from there. The first coffee house was opened in Venice in 1645. Then Europe met with coffee houses in Paris in 1643 and in London in 1651.
Today, you can find Turkish coffee in different packages and sizes from markets, coffee shops, and online. Turkish coffee, whose fame has spread all over the world, is now included in the menus of cafes abroad. Some Turkish businesses opened cafes in various parts of Europe with the concept of Turkish coffee.
Turkish coffee has great importance in daily life and culture. Before the marriage ceremony, Turkish coffee is served to the guests who come to the house. Just as the British have a tradition of five o’clock tea, the Turks have a tradition of drinking Turkish coffee. In fact, Turkish people love coffee so much that they say "A cup of Turkish coffee has forty years of sake.” After drinking Turkish coffee, some people tell fortunes by looking at the ground accumulated at the bottom of the cup. They make inferences about the future life of the person from the shape and sign they see there.
Roasting the coffee bean involves a 3-4 step process. First of all, coffee beans, which are green before roasting, first turn yellow after contact with heat. As the roasting continues, the coffee beans that are peeled off become light brown. Later, the coffee beans that lose their moisture expand and crack. Gradually, the coffee beans are roasted with the increase in the smell. You can choose light roasted, medium roasted, and dark roasted Turkish coffee beans according to your own taste.
Different coffee beans have been used for Turkish coffee throughout history. Although the taste changes according to the local coffees, the most widely used Turkish coffee bean is the Brazilian origin. Brazilian-origin coffee gives a slightly sour and bitter taste due to the soil structure in which it is grown. In general, this taste is sought in Turkish coffee. Locally used coffee beans can also give different flavors and aromas. The most commonly used local seeds are Ethiopia, Colombia, and Yemen seeds. Since Turkish coffee is prepared with its residue, you can wait for 1 minute before drinking it.
Since Turkish coffee is not brewed like other coffees or prepared using pressure presses, it is used by grinding. Since Turkish coffee is prepared by boiling directly in water, the grinding process should be done accordingly. In Turkish coffee, coffee beans are generally ground until they become powder with the help of a mill or pestle.
To prepare Turkish coffee, it is necessary to follow a few simple steps:
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